Saturday, May 23, 2020
Animal Testing Should Be Illegal Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, is the use of animals in experiments to test product safety. I believe it is a big problem in our society. Every year at least 2.7 million animals are killed in laboratories in Australia alone and at least thirty-three animals die each second worldwide, due to cruel animal tests. Many companies feel it is okay to test on animals because they are deemed not as physiologically or emotionally complex as humans, but as animal rights supporter, Jeremy Bentham has said, Ã¢â¬Å"The question is not, Ã¢â¬ËCan they reason?Ã¢â¬â¢ nor, Ã¢â¬ËCan they talk?Ã¢â¬â¢ but rather, Ã¢â¬ËCan they suffer?Ã¢â¬â¢ and most of the time the animals do suffer. So, what do scientists test on animals? The mainÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Some companies avoid testing altogether by using non-toxic natural ingredients or those that have already been safety-approved by the Cosmetics, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. As Gordon Baxter, co-founder of Pharmagene Laboratories, which uses only computers and human tissues to create and test drugs once said, Ã¢â¬Å"If you have information on human genes, whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the point of going back to animals?Ã¢â¬ So now let me ask you a question. If we have this reliable technology which is not only humane, but also less expensive than using live animals, why isnÃ¢â¬â¢t animal testing illegal? LetÃ¢â¬â¢s stop working with these old methodologies and embrace these newer techniques. Everything we ever tested on animals can now be tested using everything from vegetables to computers. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve all seen the gruesome videos and the sickening pictures; we have the replacement, so letÃ¢â¬â¢s get rid of animal testing. Next time you need some more shampoo, household cleaning products, want some new make-up or just simply want a chocolate bar, do the animals a favor and check to see whether the manufacturer tests on animals. If so, ask yourselves, Ã¢â¬Å"is it so hard to choose another brand?Ã¢â¬ and help those whose cries are forever sealed behind laboratory doors. TheShow MoreRelatedAnimal Testing Should Be Illegal1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmillion animals worldwide are used in laboratory experiments each yearÃ¢â¬ (About Animal Testing). Animal testing has been used since the BC years, and it is used to understand and compare how things might affect the human body. In 1937, a pharmaceutical company released a drug that was poisonous to humans unknowingly. It ended up poisoning many people, and resulted in several deaths. After this incident, experiments on animals became more important in the medical world (Hajar, Rachel). Animal testingRead MoreShould Animal Testing Be Illegal?955 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAnimal testing is widely used today for a variety of different reasons ranging from testing new medical treatments for serious diseases to testing new cosmetics. Due to the widespread nature of animal testing, there are those who argue that animal testing is morally wrong and that it causes unnecessary suffering in animals. However, the re are some that believe animal testingÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to reduce human suffering makes it morally right, good, and useful. Throughout this paper, I will argue that testingRead MoreShould Animal Testing Be Illegal?2083 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesOne Fur Ball at a Time Through the years, animal experimentation has played a key role in leading to breathtaking discoveries in medicine, products, and cosmetics. However, what many people tend to forget are the numbers of animal subjects that have suffered serious harm during the process of experimentation. Each day across the United States innocent animals are used as test subjects for products that have little to no relevance importance. Animal testing has had many negative issues that accompanyRead MoreHave You Ever Seen A Cruelty Free Symbol In The Shape Of1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescontents were made without it being tested on an animal first. But what if the symbol wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t on the bottle? Have you ever thought of what would happen to that bunny you would usually see in a pet store? To answer this question, commonly, animals put through experimentation are put through force feeding, food deprivation, and inflictions of wounds. That bunny probably is not okay right now. Cosmetic companies all o ver the world endanger the lives of animals to test toxicity and irritation of products.Read MoreAnimal Testing Proposal Essay1549 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMillions of animals are being unneedlessly tested on for cosmetics, even though there are plenty of alternatives available and most of the results are unreliable or not applicable to humans. Although the fight against animal testing has made huge progress recently, America has yet to stop this cruel practice and chooses to torture animals while other countries are making a stop to the testing (Ã¢â¬Å"Animal Testing 101Ã¢â¬ ). Right now, millions of mice, rats, rabbits, primates, cats, dogs, and other animals are lockedRead MorePersuasive Essay On Animal Testing1080 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshappens to the thousands of animals that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t in the rescue centers? Do you ever wonder what happens to those animals bought and never to be seen again? Two words, Animal Testing. This awful way of testing hundreds of companies products on these poor, innocent animals. Half to almost all of those animals get killed by these confused researchers looking for a way to make a profit. We need to find an alternative for these cruel researchers. We need to free those animals, they deserve to have a normalRead MoreAnimal Testing Is Bad1374 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAGAINST ANIMAL TESTING! The question is not, Can they reason? nor, Can they talk? but rather, Can they suffer?Ã Did you know that over a hundred million animals get injured or die due to animal testing? But when you think about is it actually legal? So the thing is it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter what we think because there are people who want themselves to live a better life then the animals and they do experimentation on the animals just so humans can live a better life. AndRead MoreAnimal Testing Should Not Be Banned1581 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnimal testing is being used by different organizations all over the world to prevent specific diseases, especially cancer. Americans see animal testing having a harmful effect but it is one of the main reasons why society has most cures for some illnesses. This topic is important because people need to know what goes on during animal testing and why it is very beneficial. Animal testing needs to be used to find all cures. Some animals such as chimps/ monkeys have 90% of the same DNA humans haveRead MoreAnimal Testing Should Be Outlawed Essay1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof innocent and helpless, animals are being tortured and murdered. They are used for product testing as well as to put into products without consumer knowledge. These defenseless animals are deprived of respect and are victimized to an extent where it becomes unbearable to watch. There are many organizations that are trying to fight for animal rights. However, these organizations struggle with is because there is no legislation in the United States to combat animal testing. Even though it is not againstRead MoreAnimal Rights Should Not Be Banned1290 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAnimal Rights There she sits in her favorite restaurant at her favorite steak house ordering her most favorite meal, steak. It s hunting season and he has been waiting all year to go deer hunting with his father and he just can t wait. The 8 year old girl goes to the doctor sick and discovers she has diabetes. In order to live, she has to inject herself with insulin everyday for the rest of her life. If animal rights is a law then we wouldn t have the luxury of any of these things. Although animals
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Treatment No matter the nature of the presenting problem, the therapeutic process in the BowenÃ¢â¬â¢s transgenerational model is governed by two main goals: management of anxiety and relief from symptoms, and an increase in each participantÃ¢â¬â¢s level of differentiation (Kerr Bowen as cited in Goldenberg Goldenberg, 2013, p. 227). The treatment for a person with SPD, using Bowenian approach, consists of decreasing anxiety and increasing levels of differentiation in the individual and the family system. In order to achieve both treatment goals, Bowen preferred to be a coach. According to Goldenberg and Goldenberg (2013), Bowen presented himself as a researcher helping individuals becoming objective researchers of their own ways ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Because Bowen believed in the relevance of multigenerational healing, he created the Genogram (p. 225). A Genogram is a therapeutic tool that can be used to graphically identify the family system of an individual and the various generational influences that the individual has. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) The CBT model is based on the theory that an event occurs (the situation), then people assign it a meaning (the interpretation), leading to an emotional, behavioral or physiological change (the reaction) (Ledley, Marx Heimberg, 2010, p. 12). CBT approach believes that people assign meaning to their events, and then the assigned meaning impacts peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. In this section, it will be analyzed the etiology and treatment of SPD based on the CBT approach. Etiology CBT sees psychopathology as a cause of a triggering event and a maladaptive meaning assignation of the event (Ledley, Marx and Heimberg, 2010, p. 12). When an event occurs and people assign maladaptive meanings to the event, it can lead to the development of a psychological disorder. CBT believes that the way people perceive the world in large affects the way they behave, feel and understand life situations (Schaefer, 2011, p. 313). The perceptions or thoughts that people have a bout others and their environments influence them behaviorally, emotionally, and psychologically.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
When you hear the term Ã¢â¬Å"Plastic SurgeryÃ¢â¬ , what comes to mind? For me, I think of a Barbie doll. An unrealistic image of the body, but still known to be the perfect doll. I think of the horror stories of botched surgeries. I think of insecurities and people attempting to correct their bodies. I also think of a different nose, Botox, injections, incisions, and scars. However, there are two different types of plastic surgery. There is cosmetic surgery, which is the term that people mostly associate with the word Ã¢â¬Å"plastic surgeryÃ¢â¬ . There is also reconstructive surgery, which is the surgery people get when terrible things happen such as: car accidents, involvements with fire, bombs in war, a disease, birth defects etc. But, not all people think in the same way about cosmetic surgery. Others believe that plastic surgery can fix their problems and make them feel better about themselves. It is their life, they should be able to do what the please with their bodies. W hat some believe is the issue with plastic surgery and what people do not realize is that it does more harm than good, while others believe plastic surgery is okay and does no harm at all. Many people are still stuck between deciding is it ethical? Is it unethical? Should it be limited? Is it excessive? Like any issue it comes down to those who support it and those who are against it. Many people who support plastic surgery claim that it has many benefits to individuals. Some cosmetic surgeries prove only to enhanceShow MoreRelatedWhat Makes Plastic Surgery?929 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesadvantage of plastic surgery on a daily basis. Doctors are persuaded to morph the faces normal women into that of a supermodel or actress, all for the sake of interesting television. Women take to social media to stalk out their favorite Hollywood dolls, searching for a source of inspiration. Hollywood and the media have extreme power over defining what makes a woman beautiful and have pressured millions of women to conform to their standards by getting plastic surgery. CelebritiesÃ¢â¬â¢ use of plastic surgeryRead MoreWhat Are The Risks Of Plastic Surgery?1077 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWHAT ARE THE RISKS OF PLASTIC SURGERY? Doctors say that when someone is over weight and they need to find a way to lose the fat, or die. Most doctors will say that if you can, take a little bit of time to exercise at least thirty minutes a day to improve on losing the fat. What do they do if exercising is too much to handle? Now, the doctors are going for looks instead, using plastic surgery to get rid of both fat and extra skin that is just hanging on the body or building up too fast to get ridRead MoreWhat Makes Plastic Surgery?1159 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMaybe They were Born with it, Maybe it is Cosmetic Surgery Humans are social animals by nature. There is an ever-present urge to assimilate into society for person gain or comfort regardless of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s place of birth. Through personal observations, in both the Western and Eastern cultures, the region a person is brought up does not definitively matter when it concerns physical insecurities or how someone goes about remodeling themselves. Some go about change through adapting their dietary habitsRead MoreShould Teens Get Forced Into Getting Plastic Surgery?1656 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmother looks different from her, due to the fact she has gotten a lot of plastic surgery done to herself. Whose little girl wants to grow up and look beautiful, just like her mother, but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the risk of plastic surgery. When the little girl grows into a teen, she thinks she is finally ready to get her first cosmetic surgery done, a nose job. Her mother is all for it, since she has had plenty of cosmetic surgeries before, but is this perfectly team getting this for herself, where to makeRead MoreTaking a Look at Plastic Surgery1016 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthemselves into what they think is better. They are willing to put themselves under the knife just to accomplish their dream of extraordinary beauty. Plastic surgery is an easy road to the illusion of what people refer to as perfection. This subject is more closely related to women as they are always seeking attractive faces and flattering bodies. People tend to view plastic surgery as a simple amendment to their imperfections, but what they donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize is that a plastic surgery is a tool that couldRead MorePlastic Surgery Becomes More Popular953 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAs time progresses, plastic surgery becomes more popular. Plastic surgery isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just whatÃ¢â¬â¢s seen on TV and on social media; plastic surgery is much more than facelifts, rhinoplasty, and breast enhancements. In fact, Ã¢â¬Å"plastic surgery is anything that undergoes the proces s of reconstructing or repairing parts of the body.Ã¢â¬ (Reconstructive Surgery) The facelift Kris Jenner recently just had done is equally considered plastic surgery as an ordinary person getting an extra finger removed. These are bothRead MorePlastic Surgery And Its Effects On Society959 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOver time, plastic surgery has become a lot more popular. Plastic surgery isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just whatÃ¢â¬â¢s seen on TV and on social media; plastic surgery is much more than facelifts, rhinoplasty, and breast enhancements. In fact, Ã¢â¬Å"plastic surgery is anything that undergoes the process of reconstructing or repairing parts of the body.Ã¢â¬ (Reconstructive Surgery) The facelift Kris Jenner recently had done is equally considered plastic surgery as an everyday person removing an extra finger they were born with. TheseRead MoreEssay about American Teenagers and Plastic Surgery1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAmerican Teenagers and Plastic Surgery Plastic surgery is not a new field of medicine. Traditionally, plastic surgery dealt with fixing abnormalities of the body, but recently people are enjoying the luxury of plastic surgery simply because they are not happy with their appearance. People make appointments with plastic surgeons for procedures such as rhinoplasty, liposuction, tummy tucks, face lifts, and most commonly breast augmentation. These people look forward to desired results fromRead MoreEffects Of Technology On Plastic Surgery1281 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTechnology on Plastic Surgery Ludwig Wittgenstein ,a british philosopher,once said, Ã¢â¬Å"The human body is the best picture of the human soul.Ã¢â¬ Though this may be untrue, or widely disagreed with, it shows that people are judged by their appearance. But what if someone is born unattractive, should they stay that way for their entire life? If there is a cure to disfigurement, does that mean people should ignore it just because itÃ¢â¬â¢s frowned upon? According to the world book encyclopedia,Ã¢â¬Å"Plastic surgery is aRead MorePros And Cons Of Plastic Surgery Essay818 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPlastic surgery is a medical specialty concerned with the correction or restoration of form and function of a body part. There are a lot of arguments concerning plastic surgery. Some people even argued that it should be banned. However, the fact that plastic surgery is still legally practiced globally points out that the advantages significantly outweigh the disadvantages. Plastic surgery should not be banned due to th e following reasons. Firstly, plastic surgery is needed for medical purposes. Secondly
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Poetry has a role in society, not only to serve as part of the aesthetics or of the arts. It also gives us a view of what the society is in the context of when it was written and what the author is trying to express through words. The words as a tool in poetry may seem ordinary when used in ordinary circumstance. Yet, these words can hold more emotion and thought, however brief it was presented. What makes a good poetry? It is not only in the idea or thought of what the author is trying to express. What makes a good poetry beautiful is in how the writer makes use of the words, lines, and spaces and indents. The rhythm of the poem can make a significant impact in the expression of the idea. Even the structure of words can make aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The pattern made by the alliteration and assonance makes the poem so easy to remember and also easy imagine. In this way, it is possible to get the feeling of hearing the blues also which was described by the speaker in the poem. There is also an overall effect of becoming familiar and understanding how the blues echoed through the head of the speaker. Gwendolyn Brooks is the first African American to win a Pulitzer Prize. She has also received a lot of awards and fellowships throughout her life. Born in 1917, she started her writing career in poetry at an early age, publishing her first poem in 1930. 1967 was a turning point in her career as it was in this year that she attended the Fisk University Second Black Writers Conference. In this conference, she has decided to involve herself in the Black Arts Movement. While awareness of social issues and elements of protest is found generally in all her works, some of her critics found in her work an angrier tone after joining the movement. She has also written essays, reviews, and books. She is also a prolific poet, becoming extensive in writing poetry which moves from the traditional ones to even the unrestricted free verse. Her characters are mostly from the underclass of the black neighborhoods which shows the impact of city life to the people within. As one of the most visible poets in the United States, she is active not only in public readings and poetry workshops but she also participates in contests and classes
string(59) " the twenty first century is all about embracing a change\." [Impact of Workplace Design] Institute of Hotel Management Aurangabad The Impact of Workplace Design Ã¢â¬Å" A study of the Employee on the Job Performance in Taj Palace, DelhiÃ¢â¬ Varun Sahgal (H-18095) Submitted in fulfillment of the requirement of B. A (Hons) in Hotel Management University Of Huddersfeild United Kingdom March 2013 [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 1 [Impact of Workplace Design] Declaration I declare that this Dissertation is the result of my own individual efforts and that it confirms to university, departmental and course regulations regarding cheating and plagiarism. No material contained within this Dissertation has been used in any other submission, by the author, for an academic award. We will write a custom essay sample on Dissertation: Employment and Workplace Design or any similar topic only for you Order Now Varun Sahgal (H-18095) Third Year Hotel Management Course Institute of Hotel Management, Aurangabad Date: 19. 3. 2013 [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 2 [Impact of Workplace Design] Acknowledgement Every professional endeavor requires the hard work of many worthy minds and this work is no different. I would begin by thanking my Dissertation guide Ã¢â¬ËMr. Ananad IyengarÃ¢â¬â¢, his patience and support, were instrumental in accomplishing this task. I thank my year tutor Ã¢â¬ËMr. Rakesh KatyayaniÃ¢â¬â¢ and my dissertation coordinator Ã¢â¬ËMr. Saurabh KrishnaÃ¢â¬â¢ for their amazing organizational skills that kept me focused on my work. Many of the arguments and facts mentioned in this work were sourced from books, journals, newspapers and websites. Though I have tried to acknowledge most of the sources to the best of my abilities, there were certain sources whose roots were not available making it absolutely impractical and difficult to provide accurate acknowledgement. Regardless of the source I would like to show my gratitude to these anonymous works as they may have contributed greatly towards my endeavor. Last but not the least I would like to thank my college Ã¢â¬ËInstitute of Hotel ManagementAurangabadÃ¢â¬â¢ for providing the necessary guidance and resources and I would also like to extend a vote of thanks to the Ã¢â¬ËSummonsÃ¢â¬â¢ online library of the Ã¢â¬ËUniversity of HuddersfieldÃ¢â¬â¢. This work would have been incomplete without their academic support. [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 3 [Impact of Workplace Design] Table of Contents 1. Introduction 1. Research Questions 1. 2 Subsidiary Questions 1. 3 Aim of the study 1. 4 Purpose of the study 1. 5 Limitation of the study 1. 6 Dissertation structure 6-8 8 8 8 9 9 9-10 2. Literature Review 2. 1 Introduction 2. 2 Ergonomics 2. 3 Workplace Motivation 2. 4 Supervisory support 2. 5 designing the new workplace 2. 6 Flexibility at workplace 2. 7 Health factors and wellness programs aff ecting on the job behavior 2. 8 The impact of technology on, on the job behavior 2. 9 Environmental concerns regarding workplace design 2. 10 Managing underperformance 2. 11The people involved 1 11-12 13-14 15 16-17 17-18 18-19 19-20 21-22 21-22 22-23 23 3. Research Methodology 3. 1Approach 3. 2Research Question 3. 3 Research design 24 24 24 24 4. Results and discussion 4. 1 Interview 4. 1. 1Mr, Avijit Sen, G. M. , Vesta Hotels, Jaipur 4. 1. 2 Mr. Akesh Bhatnagar, G. M. , Golkonda Hotel, Hyderabad 4. 2 Structured Questionnaire Analysis 25 25 25-27 28-30 30-40 [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 4 [Impact of Workplace Design] 5. Conclusion and recommendation 5. 1 Summary 5. 2 Major Findings 5. 3 Scope for future research 41 41 42 42 6. References 43 LIST OF TABLES FIGURE 1 ATTRIBUTES AFFECTING EMPLOYEESÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 31 FIGURE 2 ATTRIBUTES AFFECTING MALE EMPLOYEES Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 32 FIGURE 3 ATTRIBUTES AFFECTING FEMALE EMPLOYEES Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 33 FIGURE 4 COMPARITIVE STUDY OF ATTRIBUTES AFFECTING MALE AND FEMALE EMPLOYEEÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 34 FIGURE 5 ATTRIBUTES AFFECTING EMPLOYEES AGED 18-25 Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 35 FIGURE 6 ATTRIBUTES AFFECTING EMPLOYEES AGED 26-35 Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 6 FIG URE 7 ATTRIBUTES AFFECTING EMPLOYEES AGED 36-45 Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 37 FIGURE 8 ATTRIBUTES AFFECTING EMPLOYEES AGED 46-55 Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 38 FIGURE 9 COMPARITIVE STUDY OF ATTRIBUTES AFFECTING ALL AGES Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 39 [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 5 [Impact of Workplace Design] Chapter 1 Ã¢â¬Å"All work is seed sown. It grows and spreads, and sows itself anewÃ¢â¬ Thomas Carlyle Abstract Workplace design in the hospitality sector has become a very important phenomenon; people do not only wish to see a luxurious front of the house but also an amazing back office. Workplace does not only imply to external and architectural design, it also in its folds covers the topics like motivation, wellness, supervisory support, environmental concerns, learning and development etc. This project deals with understanding proper workplace design as a tool for improving on the job performance of an employee. The researcher plans to conduct a research on some of the employees working in the food and beverage department of Taj palace Delhi to understand which attribute of workplace affects them the most and till what extent. The project also involves semi structured interviews with professionals at high designation in the industry and what is their take on the importance of work environment as an overall change maker. The objective is to completely understand workplace modeling and how innovations in the same can make it better in the future. 1. Introduction In the changing world of today where luxury and fashion make up for eighty to ninety percent of emotional content in an individual, people look for fashionable and comfortable work places also. The researcher aims to study workplace attributes in the hospitality industry and its affect on, Ã¢â¬Ëon the job behaviourÃ¢â¬â¢ of the employees The researcher while working will adopt Ã¢â¬Ëcontingency orientationÃ¢â¬â¢, he will aim to understand that organizational behaviour/on the job behaviour is complex and is driven by a lot of factors. No two employees are alike and different situations means different to each and every individual. Managers therefore must learn to adopt workplace policies that answer not only the grievances of few but provides solutions for the problems of the many. [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 6 Impact of Workplace Design] The researcher aims to follow a three point approach while achieving objectives for the given topic. ? Identifying the causes of current behaviour through a questionnaire analysis on work and its attributes ? ? Sidelining strategies that would help mitigate current causes of disengagement Studying the impact of change implemented f or the same Managing workplace and workforce in the twenty first century is all about embracing a change. You read "Dissertation: Employment and Workplace Design" in category "Free Dissertation Samples" In many ways the job of the workplace is to perform the same functions as it performed earlier which is to manage, motivate and influence employees. Current scenario is that, the workplaceÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation from the employee is the same but the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation from the workplace has changed drastically. The complex variety of social, personal, environmental, recreational and technological changes that have taken place recently makes the task of managing workforce and designing workplace even more challenging. Someone rightly quoted Ã¢â¬ËManaging on the job behaviour today is like pushing water uphill using a rakeÃ¢â¬â¢ (Anonymous, n. d. ). Time is short and stakes are high. Corporate are running a race to achieve perfect face value amidst their competition. Companies that manage their workforce well get higher returns on productivity. After all, a lot depends on the produce of a company. Recently many companies have focused their attention towards IT; they feel technology gives them an added advantage since it evolves rapidly. Managers forget that technology can only seldom provide an organization with a competitive advantage but in the end, it is the people that matter. Research has also shown that investment in IT workers pays greater dividends than investment in hardware or software. When employees quit they are not leaving their jobs, they are leaving their workplace. Therefore a great workplace atmosphere creates a better on the job performance thereby creating a cadre of the finest productive workers. Products can easily be aped but not the workplace on which the productivity and behaviour of the human resource depend so an organizations greatest competitive advantage is its own workplace and the behavior of its [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 7 [Impact of Workplace Design] employees in the workplace. Implementing methods for the improvement of a workplace should be the first and foremost decision of any company. This is why companies like CISCO, Harley Davidson and Merek are different they invest in manpower more than any other attribute. They understand the importance of work and workplace systems alike. One must know that implementing a straightforward management strategy is easy but what really counts is what the management does in difficult times when on the job behaviour is not good and there are high rates of employee attrition and abseintism. . 1 Research Question ? Is On the Job Behaviour influenced by workplace design? 1. 2 Subsidiary Questions ? ? Would a better on the job performance affect organizational productivity? Why have no strong laws in workplace design been implemented in the past twenty years? ? Will factors like goal setting, performance feedback, role congruity, defined processes, workplace incentive, supervisor support etc influence Ã¢â¬ËOn the job beha viorÃ¢â¬â¢ of an employee? ? Have there been improvement trends in workplace design? 1. Aim of the study The aim is to analyze the effect of the Workplace attributes on the employees Ã¢â¬ËOn the job behaviorÃ¢â¬â¢ by performing a structured research in the Food and Beverage department of Taj Palace Delhi. [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 8 [Impact of Workplace Design] 1. 4 Purpose of the study Workplace and jobs have become a complex phenomenon in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s times. Employees today have a large number of alternatives and selections at their disposal and hence workplace becomes a crucial factor for keeping or leaving the job. It is imperative that an Employees working environment is well kept and maintained because ultimately the workplace environment is what defines on the job behaviour and employee motivation. How well an employee adapts to his psychological, psycho motive, desire and health factors at his workplace will determine his workplace behaviour, productivity and errors. Through this research the researcher aims to prove the relation between workplace factors and on the job behaviour of the employee thereby being able to prove that workplace design factors definitely impacts on the job performance of an employee. . 5 Limitations and scope of the study: Broad research in this field would bring about data collection complications. The research only analyses the data collected from a few employees in the food and beverage department. The semi structured interviews will also not show the bigger picture as different people have different opinions about their own workplace, to some the workplace seem s perfect to others it may require a lot of change. Although the study covers only a small department in one business unit of the hospitality sector research on this subject in the near future on a macro level would provide managers with an all new level of understanding in employee motivation and workplace design. The research can be extended to hotels resorts or even company policies. 1. 6 Dissertation Structure: The 1st chapter, the Introduction essentially covers the topic of the research and a brief on its relevance to the industry today. The chapter summarizes the approach of the researcher and the hypothesis and other objectives. The chapter speaks of limitations and scope of this dissertation in the next decade. It also covers some of the questions that the researcher will analyze during the course of this project. [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 9 [Impact of Workplace Design] The 2nd chapter, the literature review forms the basis of the dissertation. It carries a vivid description of each of the workplace attributes, their current scenario in the industry, prior research and the researcher valuable critique. The literature review provides a structure to the dissertation and also helps to prepare a structure for the data analysis and research methodology. The Literature review also decides the scope for future research on the given topic. The 3rd Chapter, the research methodology deals with the steps the researcher has taken to obtain the desired data to conclude his hypothesis. It also gives a comparative understanding of how the researcher has composed the models for analysis and what was the approach. The 4th Chapter, the data analysis contains the conducted interviews and the analysis of the data collected from the employees in the form of a structured questionnaire, the chapter has the analysis of the data which proves the researchers hypothesis and also answers the subsidiary questions as given on the first chapter The 5th Chapter, conclusion and recommendation summarizes the dissertation and the results of the analysis. It has the critique of the researcher on the existing procedures and how they can be changed in the near future to achieve outstanding results. The chapter also provides a valuable insight into how future research can be conducted for the same [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 10 [Impact of Workplace Design] Chapter 2 (Literature Review) Ã¢â¬Å"When people go to work, they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to leave their hearts at home. Ã¢â¬ -Betty Bender 2. 1 Overview It has always been argued that distraction, lack of interest, poor decisions and high absence are the major causes of employee disengagement; but what organizations actually forget are that these factors might be just the symptoms; Ã¢â¬â the root cause may be very different (Slade, 2010). Recent scenarios also indicates that subtle productive changes in the workplace environment today actually reduce employee absenteeism and attrition, which in turn improves on the job performance thereby impacting productivity in a very positive way (Roeloefsen, 2002). Today it has been proven that employee satisfaction is directly proportional to job satisfaction, which is directly dependent on the working environment. Workplace factors are a major catalyst in productivity and on the job performance of an employee. In fact, research has focused on ergonomics or biomechanics because of workersÃ¢â¬â¢ demands for more comfort at the workplace (Wells, 2000). Theorists believe that everyone seeks a balance between what one puts into his work and what one expects to get out of it. Most of the time one tends to compare his own situations with that of other employees in the market place, before he actually decides to work with a particular organization (Adams, 1963). In the recent past the nature of employee and employer relations has actually been distorted because of the changes in job structures and way of living. There are a number of companies in the market and therefore not only employees but employers also need to focus on their conduct to make a mark in the business. Higher salaries and better perks may seem the most obvious way of increasing an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s on the job performance but this is influenced by other important factors that include work motivation, training and development opportunities, physical, psychological and psychomotive factors (Leblebici, 2012). [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 11 [Impact of Workplace Design] MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needsÃ¢â¬â¢ theory argued that the measure of anthropogenic attitudes to work was slowly and steadily being extended to workplace and work environment as well for understanding human psychology and motivating factors. The study involved synthesizing success stories of exemplary people like Einstein, Roosevelt, Douglas and Adams rather than studying the so called neurotic or mentally ill. The model involved looking at human psychology from scratch Ã¢â¬â basic needs like food, water, lifestyle, love etc. Going step higher, needs evolved to less basic ones like security, employment, morality, family etc. At further higher levels, needs were more exclusive and included a need for creativity, belonging, selfesteem, motivation and culture. It was realized that if all these factors were well taken care of in a workplace environment, they would boost the on job performance of the individual , which would reflect on the team thereby boosting productivity on a whole (Janet A Simons, n. d. ). McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s theory on the contrary involved classifying workers as X or Y elements, where the X elements are idle, destructive and redundant and require motivation and training to bring them up to speed with work and business. Elements Y on the other hand, are selfmotivated workers flushed with creativity, who actually make up the strong pillars of the business and require less support as compared to the element X. McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s theory differs from MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory where he states that it is the worker who should be motivated. According to him, the workers should have a positive relation with the workplace to ensure all psychological and self actualization needs are being fulfilled for better performance and productivity. Stuart, 2010) Finally differing from all other theorists Herzberg found out that factors that were cause for concern were company policy, relation with the boss, working conditions, salary and relationship with peers. On the other hand , the factors that kept them motivated were achievement, recognition, business as usual, responsibility , advancement and growth, which again linked the theory of Herzberg to Mcgregor and Maslow (Anonymous, n. d. ) Therefore it may be said that a workplace is the result of various decisions, feelings and emotions working together in a close and cohesive work environment. So to actually determine what is it that actually impacts on the job performance of an employee. The researcher will look into biomechanics which has been a very recent breakthrough in research better termed as Ergonomics at workplace. [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 12 [Impact of Workplace Design] 2. 2 Ergonomics: Today Ã¢â¬ËErgonomicsÃ¢â¬â¢ or innovation in workplace procedures has become the hip word in the United states of America as the workplace is going through major changeovers during this particular era. The Modern Office Procedure Council has even moved up to publish an article fashionably, entitled Ã¢â¬ËErgonomics; the outbreak of a newer disciplineÃ¢â¬â¢ (Anonymous, n. d. ). The article though not very acclaimed has covered: work-stations, work-environment, behaviors at work and many other minute issues that are generally overlooked while discussing on the job performance. The research brought together problems that had been collected and researched over a period of thirty years to prove that employers could actually boost employee on the job performance through workplace design. Thi research is mainly being focused on the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ reaction to workplace and workplace design. Working all day at a desk in an office takes its toll on the eyes, neck and hands which are sometimes termed as Musculo Skeletal disorders or simply (MSDs) (Anonymous, 2010). Workplaces have today initiated Healthy Work Practice Programs (HWPP), these programs provide a proper checklist for office ergonomic design and also help develop strategies to implement the same (Anonymous, 2010). A study conducted in 2000 also states that in the workplace today where technology has taken over a lot of the workplace space there should be supplementary breaks in between to reduce eye strain and over exertion of the eye muscles (Anonymous, 2007). Theorists have argued that the rate of production per industry per day has been increasing daily to maintain a competitive advantage in the market place. Technologies are being upgraded, work lifestyle is changing and most importantly, recreation time is being diminished. In such an environment, where humans are actually becoming synonymous to machines, the importance of rgonomics is paramount. If the principles of Ergonomics are not applied to the work task and tools, workers might go through undue stress and mental strain, which in turn decrease on the job performance and have a negative impact on productivity as a whole. Recognizing the ergonomic factors in a workplace is the first step to recognizing the hazards related to workers o n the job conditions. Engineers believe that removing physical stress from the working environment could actually eliminate many serious work related injuries each year. Employers should learn to understand employee mindset and work design to make the workplace safer. [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 13 [Impact of Workplace Design] Ergonomics can help reduce many (MSDs) while working in operations like hotels, as the work involves giving more than eight hours a day to operations. The process also helps increase the productivity as it provides safer working conditions that motivates the workers to work better in an environment. Ergonomics would also help decrease the absenteeism rates due to less MSDÃ¢â¬â¢s and more energy among the work force. A workplace can substantially reduce turnovers if new recruits find their workplace properly designed to suit their mindset. Reduced expenses, resulting from a decrease in the rate of (MSDs) would require less cost for covering illness and reduced organization and personal medical costs (OSHA, 2000) OSHA also agues that Reducing Ergonomic Hazards at a workplace is probably the easiest of operations to perform. If one is an employer and his employees frequently complain of ergonomic hazards, all he has to do is incorporate an ergonomics program in the foundation of his organization. The program should motivate employees to participate and should provide scope for valuable feedback to supervisors. The program should be checked regularly by the executive in charge to ensure transparency and productivity. The program at the end of the day should be successful and should be a proper training and development task for employees as well as employers (OSHA, 2000) Though from personal work experience it is strongly believed, Employees in the Hospitality ndustry have an inner belief that it is the organizations outlook to provide them with safe, healthy and balanced working conditions. Over a period of the past two years the researcher has completed successful working hour within the premises of three Hospitality establishments and has nowhere experience a proper Ergonomic design program in place. Apart from workplace design 58% of the employees strongly agree that the motivation factor is a major discipline if one wishes to measure the relation between job performance an d workplace. Each and every employee feels that to sustain and work happily in a working environment there are only two things of paramount importance, the first being workplace design which has been explained above by the researcher in great detail and the other is Motivation factor. [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 14 [Impact of Workplace Design] 2. 3 Workplace motivation Motivation recently has been a keen area of research among industrialists and psychologists as it impacts on the job performance of an Individual. It is being taken as a very serious process in a workplace. The beginning of motivation for any personnel in any field of work is very simple, Ã¢â¬Ëhe deserves to be treated fairly and with respectÃ¢â¬â¢. On the job behaviour is a pure reflection of how one is treated within the organization. The second step to why motivation is an important fact is because Ã¢â¬Ëmotivation leads to a change in behaviour, which in turn decides changes in the productive aspect of the employee at workplaceÃ¢â¬â¢. Slowly but steadily managers in many concerns have started taking the concept of motivation seriously. The assessment of satisfaction in the workplace has been a very common occurrence in the recent times and has been used as a tool to measure employee well being and satisfaction in a particular department (Spector, 1997). General Research has shown that out of twenty candidates, seven prefer to go to work happily i. e. They are the category X employees according to the X and Y theory. Ten employees have a feeling that they wish to remain neutral some days can be happy and well other could be boring. The remaining three who are the Y candidates feel that their orkplace requires drastic improvements. There was a similar answer from all the candidates when they were questioned about appreciation, belonging, scope of improvement, salary, supervisor support goal setting and feedback. Therefore as gathered from work experience at a diverse number of workplaces, the general feeling is that workplace motivation is a very important aspect. If the behaviour of the supervisor or the senior does not motivate the employees at work then the employee tends to abhor their work leading to increased abseintism and attrition. The researcher feels that out of a ten hour work shift an employer must at least spend thirty minutes with his employees to evaluate what they have done and what they should do in the near future to establish success in their working methods. An employer should be able to successfully develop a sense of confidence and optimism in his employees. The employer should also once in a while allow the employees to volunteer for tasks that are beyond their abilities so that even the failure can help generate self learning through a method of retrograde training. Apart from this the researcher also feels that an employer must successfully be able to map his employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and aspirations to help them achieve the same through directed learning and development opportunities. Apart from all this the general feeling is that beyond motivation a good supervisor at the workplace is also an important factor for retaining and satisfying employees. [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 15 [Impact of Workplace Design] 2. 4 Supervisory Support Today Supervisors are a very important factor in the workplace. They are epitomes of knowledge and mediums of effective feedback for employees who are working under them (Durham CC, 1997). The level of supervisory support is directly proportional to the teams introduced in workplace today. A supervisor today should be able to comprehend the mood of the individual and the team and work accordingly. With increasing number of team members under a supervisor the need for traditional support reduces. Today a supervisor is expected to possess the qualities for performing diverse roles as with changing scenarios the rolls of different teams. With the drastic changes in the environment it is necessary that the supervisor is chosen before the contingent team is prepared and his behaviour and attitude towards his work must be assessed before-hand so as to give a complete sense of satisfaction to all employees as theorized by (Tannenbaum SI JA, 1996). A supervisorÃ¢â¬â¢s major focus should be on the job enhancement practices for his subordinates, feedback and training. This will help bring about a change in the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour, motivating him to redesign the workplace. A supervisor must allow an employee to learn from mistakes rather than spoon feeding and directing each and every time as there is a line of research that states that Ã¢â¬Ëautonomy without doubt is the best form of learningÃ¢â¬â¢ (Parker Sk, 1998). Sometimes theorists do say that leadership and supervision have a lesser impact on satisfaction but that does not mean it has no impact at all. Supervisory support has critically been recognized as an imperative process for continuous development of new teams on the aspects of satisfaction. BM, 1997) The effect of supervisory support on employee satisfaction is an attribute which has scarcely been researched over time. What really matters is the ability of the supervisor to stay within a team and work as an equal and at the same time being able to stand out from the rest in some unique way or the other such that, he is successfully able to motivate and supervise the employees he has to lead. No supervisory support is complete without a super workplace design. [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 16 [Impact of Workplace Design] . 5 Designing the new workplace Today Ã¢â¬Ëon the job behaviourÃ¢â¬â¢ is becoming an important aspect of workplace productivity, architects and interior designers have been working hard to provide employees with the most exquisitely modeled workplaces possible. But the time has come to look beyond architectural innovation because (Jusko, May,2000) says that a study conducted in office design and workplace survey in some of the best offices in the US states that most of the managers gave working conditions a grade Ã¢â¬ËcÃ¢â¬â¢. Hence, it was proved that there are some things beyond architectural design that prompted workers to do well, which were none other than Ã¢â¬Ëwellness and recreation designÃ¢â¬â¢ Healthcare expenditure is soaring high, there is a definite need for reducing hospital and sickness costs in each and every organization. The United States of America and the European nations have adopted structured wellness programs in their office design (Kutler, 2010). Research widely shows that prevention of injury and disease decrease working cost by $3. 47 per employee per day. This average return on investment clearly highlights the fact that incorporation of wellness programs within an organization would help profits greatly and would positively influence on the job performance with reduced health concerns, injury and cost of treatment TheoristsÃ¢â¬â¢ believe a key factor of human resource is to promote employee satisfaction thereby promoting customer satisfaction. Referring to Ã¢â¬ËMaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s triangleÃ¢â¬â¢ , it can be easily seen that a sense of belonging, friends, culture, team work, co-worker support and supervisor support, games and recreation make an important part of an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëself-actualizationÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Workplace recreation and design is very evident in organizations that bring together people and processes and its introduction into the hospitality sector is a highly necessary evil. The question to ponder over is why again is a recreational design required at a workplace? The answers though are pretty simple. Today Recreational activities provide a form of intrinsic reward, a sense of self satisfaction from within, which boosts employee motivation. Participation in recreational activities and retreats, help put a balance between work and life. Recreational activities that require participation of staff teams provides scope for individual behaviour and attitude feedback. Recreation in a way helps an employee connect his aspiration to his organization and last but not the least, recreation provides the best forum for self development (Mokaya, february,2012) [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 17 [Impact of Workplace Design] So, when it comes to linking recreation and health with on the job performance it has been well seen that both help in strengthening the social bond between customer and employee. They help in developments of skills like leadership, team work and communication, which are invaluable assets for the service industry. The activities also provide a good social forum for discussion and understanding of topics like goals, vision and mission of the organization and future endeavors; it also provides scope for innovation and brain storming at work, coupled with increased friendship and cohesiveness among the staff. Other than wellness and recreation Work stress is also a major cause of not liking ones workplace so to provide a better relationship among staff and employers it is necessary also to act upon the concept of workplace flexibility. 2. 6 Flexibility at workplace Today flexibility means defining how and when a work is done and how does one organize his career in such a critical way that there is improved workplace effectiveness. Companies use workplace flexibility as a major tool for managing, customizing, recruiting, retaining and strategizing workforce load as said by (E. Friedman, 2002). There have been several studies in this field that have successfully been able to prove that flexibility has a major role in reducing stress, increasing effectiveness and improving performance. Flexibility at workplace can be of many types depending on what the work demands and how the superior wants to maximize the amount of work done by a particular employee. Today Traditional flextime at a workplace allows employees to choose their own times of coming and leaving the office such that their times will be surrounding the time of core operating hours and the work meted out to them should be done. Employees are given a certain amount of time in a week to complete their work for e. g. ; the employee is to work ten hours a day for four days a week or has to complete eighty hours of work over a period of nine days and so on and so forth (E. Friedman, 2002). Many companies also do offer a concept better known as summer hours, i. e. , increasing an hour per day and completing the time allotted before the designated day, to apply for an extra off. Theorists believe that Flexibility is many times wrongly termed as an employee perk whereas it is only a tool to successfully manage employee on the job behaviour/performance. Its importance is such that it can be used over a range of managerial jobs and at different levels of the hierarchy. Most importantly it is a precise tool and should only be applied only [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 18 [Impact of Workplace Design] where the management feels apt to do so, everyone cannot ask for flexibility and not all jobs can be given flexibility. There are instances wherein on a permanent job an employee can be provided flexibility for a temporary period to boost his morale so as to help him change his outlook towards his work (E. Friedman, 2002). It is imperative that a company realizes the problem it wants to deal with, using the tool of flexibility. It is wise always to look into flexibility issues of comparable companies before such a step is taken to boost employee esteem. The company should conduct internal studies and should actually be completely sure about the attitudes of the personnel for whom they are allowing flexibility as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s entire working schedule will be centered on flexibility. Going by what theorists say, coping with flexibility is also not an easy factor so it is always better if the supervisors of a company are better trained to monitor staff that are flexible and are trained to calculate output from a flex oriented workforce and last but not the least, a company should make its staff well aware of the continuing improvements and should regularly appreciate staff who have done well on a flexi schedule through accolades and newsletters. Though flexibility is not a very common answer to problems in the Hospitality sector as it is a very human oriented industry, what can actually become the solution is concentrating on improving the health of an employee. 2. 7 Health Factors and Wellness Program affecting on the job behaviour Today a workplace is viewed from the health perspective, research so far has looked into workers health in two aspects, the former being Ã¢â¬â do organizations today promote wellness and health programs for workers? And the latter being Ã¢â¬â Are healthy workplaces also the ones which are more productive? The first question generally covers human resource, employee motivation, hazard free environment, wellness programs, supervisor support, training and development. The latter question though here is significantly more important for this particular research as it is looking into improvements in Ã¢â¬Ëon the job performanceÃ¢â¬â¢ of a worker in the organization. Looking at a very three dimensional view of the situation, the answer to the latter appears to be more qualified and complex. Organizations are slowly incorporating workplace wellness programs in their work schedule but actually translating the measure of wealth to on the job productivity is a very difficult task that is required to be accomplished. The research on this front appears to be very weak because in the service industry where work is supposed to be inconspicuous, the industry has shown graphs of deteriorating worker [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 19 [Impact of Workplace Design] health and wellness because of the amount of hard work required and less time available for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own self. One must identify the gaps in the health environment of a workplace and should aim to understand the synergistic effects of certain health promotion exercises by combining psychology with job behaviour to research factors like motivation, productivity , sickness ,absenteeism , leave and other psycho social outcomes that can be measured through wellness studies conducted on the job. Organizations must invest in a healthier working environment and employee care as it will no doubt increase productivity and will be a smart investment in terms of future returns. It is highly imperative that employees coordinate with employers for such programs and understand the effects of team related, work related and family related healthcare. But then again by incorporating better technology also, one can reduce the stress on the Human workforce of the industry. 2. 8 The impact of technology on, Ã¢â¬Ëon the job behaviourÃ¢â¬â¢ Technology has not only changed the workplace today but has also become the lifeline of success of any company. The world has changed after the advent of fax, internet, Wi-Fi, e mail and holograms. Technology is upgrading itself each minute and will continue upgrading itself at a fast rate. Imagining work without access to technology is unimaginable. Technology has not only changed the lives of the physically able but has also given equal power to the disabled to compete and even be more productive than normal. With the advent of technology, more and more physically challenged people are entering the business today that probably earlier, just had one or two options. Before technology the differently abled could only earn from supplement programs of the government or could attend Ã¢â¬Ëtraining and retrainingÃ¢â¬â¢ in schools for the challenged, but their life was neither challenging nor productive. The knowledge of assisting devices Ã¢â¬â how they work and how easily they can be serviced, has empowered the physically challenged to reach newer heights, today even they can be workers, coworkers, self-earning individuals and most importantly with technology boosting their self-esteem, they have become successful and productive employees of today. Theorist believe Whether disabled or not , technology will continue to assist individuals in a job where precision and time management are required, and before joining a job the employer [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 20 [Impact of Workplace Design] s often riddled with questions about what technology will the employee be using and can the technology be remodeled as per his convenience of use (Cohn, 2000). Therefore it is imperative that technology keeps changing so that work becomes easier as ease of work is another incentive/tool to improve on the job performance and quality of service. Before we close the topic of technology, we must not forget that a very simple technology that has been around for the past few years is the one on which the foundation of every successful business industry is based is the e-mail, which is viable proof that technology is a burning need. Though technology is indispensable, policy makers in every country should take an important stride to maintain on the job wellness and a healthy workplace environment. A healthy environment is the first installment of better and greater future returns and for that technology must go hand in hand with the Environmental concerns of Today. 2. 9 Environmental concerns regarding Workplace design Environment issues at workplace should be a growing concern for any company today after the green laws and threat to the ozone layer. Apart from all this it also affects employee performance and on the job behaviour. Who would like to work in an office with bad ventilation and the smell of asbestos around? An infected work environment is a health issue; it not only decreases productivity but also has a direct impact on employee health causing diseases like asthma, claustrophobia and lung infections. This in turn again increases employee absenteeism and health costs of the company. The Employers should take necessary steps to ensure a healthy work environment. The organization should maintain and keep to the guidelines provided by OSHA and EPA to maintain cost effective ways of managing work environment and reduce absenteeism and attrition to influence on the job behaviour and employee productivity. Theorists argue that employees should also understand greater concerns related to the environment when they are working in a service industry where 75 to 80 percent of the waste generated is biodegradable and can be managed simply by doing CSR initiatives and nonprofit work. Restaurants generate around seventy to eighty kilos of edible waste per day. If a company plans successfully, the food waste can safely be disposed off to NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s for the poor as a CSR initiative which would give employees a sense of belonging and goodwill and [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 21 [Impact of Workplace Design] would motivate them to innovate on better and unique methods of waste disposal for the greater good and environmental concern. The reason for bringing in environmental concerns while studying employee productivity is the simple fact that Ã¢â¬Å"waste should be eliminated in the surroundings where it is generatedÃ¢â¬â¢ then only is it said that the company follows a policy of successful waste management. Therefore, every company should have a method of connecting with the experts for complete understanding of environmental concerns relating to a guest service industry. Proper training and development sessions on how to manage cleanliness and environment around and in the workplace should be well followed by employers. The employees should be trained in the art of environment management by their given organization. After discussing every aspect of workplace design one must not forget that an Employees reason for discord may also be underperformance which also sadly makes up a large part of the workplace design. 2. 10 Managing underperformance Workplace is marked by unsatisfactory work performance or the failure to comprehend and act on the tasks which are to be done by the individual in the position of power he holds. The reasons clearly stand to be; a high degree of non compliance with workplace policies and/or rules, unacceptable behaviour from peers at workplace and disruptive or attitude clashes with bosses or superiors. Apart from this the reasons that are more importantly missed while carrying out a feedback are an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s problem in understanding what is expected, his incapability to perform in the given position due to a mismatch between job profile and skill set, lack of regular counseling thereby paralyzing the employee technically, family issues, drug abuse and work culture. It has been frequently argued that dealing with underperformance has always been challenging for employee and employer alike. Managers with formal education require the 5Cs to deal with underperformance which relatively are character, commitment, conviction, courtesy and courage (Khera, 1998). It is crucial to resolve underperformance problems in the location where they arise. Not necessarily does every underperformance issue require a structured approach but the mind must always be free to explore additional options. Employers must remember in all contexts that underperformance affects a work environment adversely. [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 22 [Impact of Workplace Design] There exists certain incapability among managers to identify the source of underperformance and then assess it successfully. Never has one seen all companies perform at the same level and if they would have, the existence of competition would not have been a paramount feature hence it is important to understand who controls the situation and who manages the workforce. 2. 1 The people involved After discussing all the attributes involved in a workplace design that lead to positive on the job performance, one must not forget the major question of who should be involved in the major processes. An article published by (Frenburg, 1985) stated that flexibility, health, environment, recreation and motivation impacted on the job performance as it involved a sense of well being and belonging in an employee. The researcher also found that whatever gaps were left in progressive work design was the lack of consultation between employee, employer and workplace designer. It is undoubtedly very clear that a workplace benefits more from staffs who are motivated and trained and understand who the boss is. Effective performance management individuals can create better employees and better effectiveness at workplace. Non compliance with workplace issues, negligent behaviour and hostility in the workplace environment leads to leadership, teamwork and managing the workplace issues. It is rare that an employee knows what is expected from him. Many a times it has been seen that for all the processes mentioned above, there are as such no ground rules laid down by the department to help employees with the same. Unless employees are made to understand that they are underperforming, it is very difficult for them to actually understand that they are underperforming (government, n. d. ). It is essentially required that the head HR managers and executives , properly look into the tasks mentioned above so that proper coordination is maintained and all the processes followed very closely and carefullyÃ¢â¬ ¦ [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 23 [Impact of Workplace Design] Chapter 3 (Research Methodology) 3. Approach The researcher has adopted a mix of Ã¢â¬Å"quantitativeÃ¢â¬ as well as Ã¢â¬Å"qualitativeÃ¢â¬ approaches to carry out this particular study. The Qualitative analysis involves the primary research which draws inferences from the working environment and its effect on the employees in the food and beverage department of the Taj Palace Delhi. The secondary research of this analysis involved conducting literature reviews through thorough study of journals, books and websites to get a glo bal understanding of employee and employee workplace to substantiate the primary research. The quantitative approach involved conducting a survey of thirty employees in the food and beverage department of the hotel, the questionnaires were distributed to equal number of men and women and were spaced over a span of different age groups to understand how employees today feel about their workplace and what is the change they would like to see in that particular department or their working conditions in the near future. After which the researcher conducted semi structured interviews of certain industry personnel who have given sufficient amount of years to the industry and who can successfully compare and contrast the difference between workplace scenarios then and what change they have undergone now. 3. 2 The Research Question/Hypothesis Do workplace attributes affect on the job behaviour of an employee? 3. 3 Research design The primary design of the research is an empirical deductive research. The questionnaire data has been collected from thirty employees belonging to different societies and spread over different ages and genders. The qualitative data involves deducing data from semi structured interviews of hospitality industry professionals with sufficient experience of the topic. [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 24 [Impact of Workplace Design] Chapter 4 (Results and Discussion) 4. 1 Interview 4. 1. 1 Mr. Avijit Sen, General Manager, Vesta Hotels Jaipur How critical is the physical work environment to office space designing today compared to when you began your work in the industry? Things were indeed very different when I began in the hospitality sector. The industry was still going through a phase of metamorphosis and things were very new. Then, every HM student was considered to be a waiter and a culinary guy a Ã¢â¬ËbawarchiÃ¢â¬â¢. There was no defined workplace design as such, people were staunch followers of the phrase work is worship and no matter whatever be the condition work is our livelihood so good or bad pleasing or not so pleasing it did not matter. But yes things are very different now. People are being judged on their overall efficiency more and more jobs are being replaced by technology and a small number of highly qualified individuals are required in a business unit. Workplace or the so called physical environment of the employee has become an epicenter of change. Innovation and efficiency are todayÃ¢â¬â¢s mantra and are the keys to employee motivation. Everyone wishes to have an environment with his own physical space. There has been more stress on scientific design lately to suite the body and physical needs of employees and with labor becoming more and more costly, one has to design to retain. When did you first begin to realize that the work environment or the workplace itself has started affecting your on the job behaviour? Well to be very honest, it was not very tough to realize that. When you are at the level of assistant managers you are young in the industry and the world seems to be a gift of Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 25 [Impact of Workplace Design] unlimited possibilities. At that time when you are in the period of frequent transfers and property changes you seem to notice designs and patterns I am from a food and beverage background for me at least I knew that the design of the bar or the restaurant definitely mattered. Better ambience better origination would not only please customer but also employee alike. The major difference always will be that some places the organization would have designed well at other places it would have not shown much interest so the working attitude really differs from place to place. I preferably found the Private hotels and their designs better and hence changed over from ITDC. Why do you feel that the industry is taking so long to incorporate workplace innovations even after realizing that it has a significant impact on the on the job behaviour? Unlike all other product oriented businesses which have been there from time immemorial the hospitality industry is relatively knew and mapping all aspects of its production is very difficult. Plus recent insights show that the hospitality industry is still in need of a lot of qualified professionals Workplace design though essential is a very hi-fi concept, the education system in India is definitely not equipped to produce out of the box thinking individuals and that is why there are very few. It is not that the workplace engineering concept has not been introduced, the fact still is that hospitality professionals are still not mentally prepared to embrace the realities of the concept. If you wanted to create the ideal workplace environment, what would you envision it to be if you were an employee? Honestly, if I were to view workplace as an employee, India is far from achieving the vision I have seen. Improvements are not only required in staff line motivation but also infrastructure [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 26 [Impact of Workplace Design] Life in hospitality is fast paced, the job is demanding and work hours are eerie. In a scenario like this, employees are forced to come and change in a changing rooms cramped with lockers that would not even hold two pair of suits. The washrooms of the back area are cramped and employees literally have to bend to accommodate. The bunk beds placed for employees on night parole too are rough and uncomfortable When I began as an hotelier we had a few prestigious properties of hospitality scattered in the regions of Delhi Madras and Bangalore and sadly when today hospitality is growing its staff sector is still underdeveloped. The resources are not proper and the facilities are scarce. What do you feel have been the most repetitive complains regarding workplace issues in the industry? Being a manger you face those complains in abundance, you can never categorize these complains as important or non important. Many of them are linked to issues I have already discussed with you in previous questions. I often get complains like the environment smell rancid, the cleaning in the back areas are, not proper. Technological failure, softwareÃ¢â¬â¢s not working. Then you will also not be surprised to find complains like space in washroom is not sufficient or the staff rooms are too claustrophobic. Lack of basic amenities and training programs and less motivational factors related to work. Office innovation or workplace change is actually the development of technological social and personnel aspects, what are your comments on this statement? It is definitely that but a lot more is what I would like to say as I have mentioned every aspect in my answers above. [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 27 [Impact of Workplace Design] 4. 1. 2 Mr. Akesh Bhatnagar, General Manager, Golkonda Hotel, Hyderabad How critical is the physical work environment to office space designing today compared to when you began your work in the industry? Interesting Question, you see physical work environment or office design now is like the rotation of the earth, there is day and there is night. Some changes occurred for the best and well others were not that successful. Office design was critical then and is critical now the only difference today is that people are more aware of what is expected of them. In the 1980s when I was still in my twenties I remember the laws of transparency at work and overtime were not strict. People could get away with anything and everything and honestly we did not bother much we did what our elders had done, we were told work was for a living and it had to be done come what may. Today though things have taken a drastic turn with people today aping the west and with more flexibility in laws and awareness employees tend to choose their own workplace. If it is good and up to their level of comfort they will do the job and if not Ã¢â¬ËitÃ¢â¬â¢s not their cup of teaÃ¢â¬â¢, so today office space design has actually become a mirage of what the employee wants to see. It is his job and his way. When did you first begin to realize that the work environment or the workplace itself has started affecting your on the job behaviour? Well it is actually hard to recall but if you ask me personally, I would say I realized it when I was training with ITDC on a banquet operation. I remember I had a very grumpy supervisor who would snap at us every time we moved a glass from here to there. It was actually intimidating the way he would actually direct us in each and everything how to walk, how to talk and how to serve, what to say and what not to say. One must understand that people do not like that. They prefer an environment that gives the ease of working not overstress them From there on I started judging my workplace by how my peers were, how my colleagues were, how well kept my workplace was and most importantly whether I can expect to get back what I put in. [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 28 [Impact of Workplace Design] Why do you feel that the industry is taking so long to incorporate workplace innovations even after realizing that it has a significant impact on the on the job behaviour? Well Varun, I do not know if you realize this or not but hoteliering is not the most happening profession in the world today. You will actually be surprised to know how many people keep this as a second option, honestly hoteliering was my second option too it was much later when I came face to face with my work that I realized it is not that bad after all. If you see figures the industry is actually in need of more than twenty thousand educated professionals but alas! People with brains either become engineers or doctors or join other professions with other noble roots. There is a shortage of skilled personnel in this industry and people knock on the doors of this profession when they have realized that they do not stand a chance elsewhere. People like you that is if hotels was your first option are really hard to come by so you know bringing in an innovation which few seem to understand feels like a waste of time so the process of workplace change though slow seems even more redundant because of the lack of skilled people for its execution. If you wanted to create the ideal workplace environment, what would you envision it to be if you were an employee? Well if I were to envision my work place I would see myself sitting on a chair that floats above the ground and be able to move in an out through walls unnoticed eat sleep work and enjoy when I want. Jokes apart, I am just trying to say that there can never be one vision. The vision of workplace for every person changes with the change in his seniority and his mindset. When I was at the Front office manager I wanted a bigger desk today when I am a General Manager I want a bigger and much more technologically improved office What one envisions to see will always be steps away from reality, so if you wish to sum up what each and every one of us in this industry wants it would just be Ã¢â¬ËparadiseÃ¢â¬â¢. [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 29 [Impact of Workplace Design] What do you feel have been the most repetitive complains regarding workplace issues in the industry? Well when you talk of complains in this industry they are more like tantrums of kid. It is like when the kid wants something he wants it without even realizing whether or not the company would actually be able to provide him with the same. I get complains like Ã¢â¬Ëthe staff washroom is to smallÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ë we need better lockersÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëthe work hours are killingÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ësir, I did not get my designated ofÃ¢â¬â¢ and last but not the least Ã¢â¬Ë my supervisor and colleagues do not respect meÃ¢â¬â¢. This world is a battlefield of conflicts, people strive to achieve better and better. To people there will always be a scope for change so workplace design or change is like polishing a diamond with each intricate cut it shines better and its value doubles. Maybe many of the complains do not have a solution but many also do but the irony is if you solve one they come up with upgraded versions of previous complains so you have got to keep improving yourself so that you can face the challenges of the future. Office innovation or workplace change is actually the development of technological social and personnel aspects, what are your comments on this statement? Definitely, very truly spoken because work and its outcomes depend mainly on personal social and technological aspects, enhancing all of the above would definitely enhance productivity. . 2 Structured Questionnaire Analysis A structured questionnaire was provided to thirty staff members selected randomly from the food and beverage department of Taj Palace Hotel, Delhi. The questionnaire involved ranking workplace as an important attribute affecting job satisfaction and on-job performance on a scale of one to five, with one being the lowest and five being the highest. After the data was collected, it was analyzed for the importance placed to different attributes with regards to the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ job satisfaction and on-job performance. An average of the [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 30 [Impact of Workplace Design] data submitted by all participants of the study was calculated and a bar chart was generated as follows. Attributes of Job Satisfaction 5 4. 5 4 3. 5 3 2. 5 2 1. 5 1 0. 5 Attributes 2. 6 2. 6 3. 7 4. 4 4. 1 3. 9 3. 6 3. 6 3. 7 3. 7 4. 1 4. 2 4 4. 5 3. 8 4 4. 5 0 Figure 1 The analysis of this questionnaire presented to employees of different ages and working at different levels in the Food and Beverage Department of The Taj Palace Delhi yielded very interesting results. Looking at the bar chart from the average of all attributes of work and workplace design , it is naturally seen that Learning Opportunity, Promotion, Motivation and Workplace Architecture play a major role in employee satisfaction, which in turn is known to be directly proportional to the on the job behaviour of the employee. Many employees have also marked Wellness Programs and Job Security as important reasons for retaining a job. The analysis also included ideas collected from, The Restaurant Manager, supervisors, the stewards and also management trainees working in the department. The questionnaire by design was circulated to an equal number of male and female employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s in the study. [Varun Sahgal (H-18095)] Page 31 [Impact of Workplace Design] Next, the researcher segregated the study findings by gender to see if any deviations occurred in the result. It was realized that different workplace attributes motivated male and female employees differently. Given below is a Bar chart of the attributes that the male employees considered essential for job satisfaction. 5 Job Satisfaction Attributes for Male 4. 7 Employees 4. 1 3. 4 3. 8 3. 7 3. 4 2. 8 2. 5 4. 1 4 4 4. 2 4. 2 4. 2 4. 1 4 4. 5 4 3. 5 3 2. 5 2 1. 5 Attributes(M) 1 0. 5 0 Figure 2 It was clearly noticed that for male employees working in the Food and Beverage department of The Taj Palace Hotel, Delhi that what motivates them the most is the physical attribute of workplace, which includes working desk and back area design. Workplace architecture is closely followed by job security, training and dev elopment, motivation while attr How to cite Dissertation: Employment and Workplace Design, Essays
The environment means the natural surroundings that we live in. This includes the trees, the plants, animals, mountains, rivers, oceans, sky, etc. The nature around us is the very essence of our survival and sustenance. Therefore it is the responsibility of every citizen of the world to preserve the environment and keep it safe as there are efforts to destruct it from many sources. Our earth abounds in natural resources and therefore we have no right to destroy them. Man does not realize that his attitude towards nature will one day make him pay a very heavy price. Man continues to pollute the environment. There is an increase in air pollution because of the growing number of vehicle on roads. The rivers are polluted because factories and houses throw their waste material into the river. Rivers are getting choked with silt, sewage and other pollutants. Factories processing chemical emit poisonous gases which are becoming a health hazard. We will write a custom essay sample on Preserve Environment or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Although these industries are doing a great service to mankind, we are also paying a heavy price for this service. We have also destroyed ozone layer partly. We are encroaching on deserts, forests, lakes, rivers, etc. Forests are being razed. Trees are being cut. The vanishing of trees is reducing the oxygen content in the atmosphere and the air is rich in carbon dioxide which is harmful for us. This denuding of forests is steadily eroding the soil too. Recently we witnessed the Gulf War. Besides great loss to life and property, the environment was badly affected. Oil wells were on fire continuously tor many days thus polluting the air. Thousands of oil wells were blown up and oil spilt into the sea which endangered marine life. The world was shocked at the Ã¢â¬Å"black snowÃ¢â¬ which fell in various parts of the world that winter. We also suffer the effect of Ã¢â¬Å"acid rainÃ¢â¬ which is rain water mixed with the effect of various poisonous gases. But now man is realizing the need to preserve the vital ingredients of nature. Our government has banned the killing of wildlife and felling of trees. Heavy fines have the killing of wildlife and felling of trees. Heavy fines have to be paid by those who commit these Ã¢â¬Å"crimesÃ¢â¬ . It is a crime to interfere with nature because no man has the right to destroy this beautiful universe and make it barren for the coming generations.
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Snowball is a young, smart, good speaker, who is also idealistic. Leon Trotsky is the other leader of the Ã¢â¬Å"October Revolution. Ã¢â¬ Snowball really wanted to make life better for all while Leon Trotsky was a pure communist and followed Marx. Napoleon was not a good speaker or as clever as Snowball. Joseph Stalin was not a good speaker either and was not educated like Trotsky was. Napoleon was cruel, brutal, selfish, devious and corrupt, but Joseph Stalin was the exact same as Napoleon and did not follow MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas or orders. Squealer had a big mouth and would always talk a lot. He convinced the animals to believe and follow Napoleon. The Propaganda department of LeninÃ¢â¬â¢s government worked for Stalin to support his image and used any lie to convince the people to for Stalin. The dogs where used as a private army that was used as fear to force animals to work. We will write a custom essay sample on Animal Farm Comparison Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page They killed and intimidated any opponent of Napoleon. The KGB- Secret Police where not really police, but forced support for Stalin and used force to often kill entire families for disobedience. Mr. Jones is irresponsible to his animals and lets him starve kind of like Czar Nicholas II who was a poor leader at best, who was also compared to western kings. Mr. Jones was also sometimes cruel and beat this with a whip while Czar Nicholas II was cruel and was also sometimes brutal with opponents. Old Major taught Animalism while Karl Marx had invented Communism. Again Old MajorÃ¢â¬â¢s workers do the work, the rich keep the money , and the animals revolt. Karl MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"workers of the world uniteÃ¢â¬ and take over the government. Animalism has no owners, no rich, but no poor. Communism is exactly the same. With Animalism workers get a better life and all animals are equal. In Communism all people are also equal. Benjamin was an Old Wise Donkey who was always suspicious of Napoleon and thought Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing ever changes. Ã¢â¬ He was right. The skeptical people of Russisa and the outside world werenÃ¢â¬â¢t really sure the Revolution would change anything and realized that a tyrant could call himself a Communist. The overall details of the revolution was designed to make life better for the animal and life ended up being far worse. It was supposed to fix the problems that existed under the CzarÃ¢â¬â¢s rule, but life was worse after the revolution than before, because Stalin had made the Czar look like a nice guy. Moses the Raven would tell the animals about SurgarCandy mountain(Heaven) and how animals would go there if they worked hard. Marx said Ã¢â¬Å"Opiate of the peopleÃ¢â¬ was a lie and used to make people not complain and do their work instead of study religion. Mollie was vain and loved her beauty and herself. She also didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think about the animal farm either. The vain people of Russia and the world had some people who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care about the Revolution but only thought about their own self interest. Boxer was a strong, hard working horse, and believed in the animal farm and always said Ã¢â¬Å"Napoleon is always right. Ã¢â¬ Dedicated, but tricked supporters of the revolution believed Stalin, because he was a Ã¢â¬Å"CommunistÃ¢â¬ and many stayed loyal even after Stalin was revealed as a tyrant.